We propose an extension of the embedded boundary method known as “shifted boundary method” to elliptic diffusion equations in mixed form (e.g., Darcy flow, heat diffusion problems with rough coefficients, etc.). Our aim is to obtain an improved formulation that, for linear finite elements, is at least second-order accurate for both flux and primary variable, when either Dirichlet or Neumann boundary conditions are applied. Following previous work of Nishikawa and Mazaheri in the context of residual distribution methods, we consider the mixed form of the diffusion equation (i.e., with Darcy-type operators), and introduce an enrichment of the primary variable. This enrichment is obtained exploiting the relation between the primary variable and the flux variable, which is explicitly available at nodes in the mixed formulation. The proposed enrichment mimics a formally quadratic pressure approximation, although only nodal unknowns are stored, similar to a linear finite element approximation. We consider both continuous and discontinuous finite element approximations and present two approaches: a non-symmetric enrichment, which, as in the original references, only improves the consistency of the overall method; and a symmetric enrichment, which enables a full error analysis in the classical finite element context. Combined with the shifted boundary method, these two approaches are extended to high-order embedded computations, and enable the approximation of both primary and flux (gradient) variables with second-order accuracy, independently on the type of boundary conditions applied. We also show that the the primary variable is third-order accurate, when pure Dirichlet boundary conditions are embedded.
We propose a model order reduction technique integrating the Shifted Boundary Method (SBM) with a POD-Galerkin strategy. This approach allows to deal with complex parametrized domains in an efficient and straightforward way. The impact of the proposed approach is threefold. First, problems involving parametrizations of complex geometrical shapes and/or large domain deformations can be efficiently solved at full-order by means of the SBM. This unfitted boundary method permits to avoid remeshing and the tedious handling of cut cells by introducing an approximate surrogate boundary. Second, the computational effort is reduced by the development of a Reduced Order Model (ROM) technique based on a POD-Galerkin approach. Third, the SBM provides a smooth mapping from the true to the surrogate domain, and for this reason, the stability and performance of the reduced order basis are enhanced. This feature is the net result of the combination of the proposed ROM approach and the SBM. Similarly, the combination of the SBM with a projection-based ROM gives the great advantage of an easy and fast to implement algorithm considering geometrical parametrization with large deformations. The transformation of each geometry to a reference geometry (morphing) is in fact not required. These combined advantages will allow the solution of PDE problems more efficiently. We illustrate the performance of this approach on a number of two-dimensional Stokes flow problems.
The discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method has found widespread application in elliptic problems with rough coefficients, of which the Darcy flow equations are a prototypical example. One of the long-standing issues of DG approximations is the overall computational cost, and many different strategies have been proposed, such as the variational multiscale DG method, the hybridizable DG method, the multiscale DG method, the embedded DG method, and the Enriched Galerkin method. In this work, we propose a mixed dual-scale Galerkin method, in which the degrees-of-freedom of a less computationally expensive coarse-scale approximation are linked to the degrees-of-freedom of a base DG approximation. We show that the proposed approach has always similar or improved accuracy with respect to the base DG method, with a considerable reduction in computational cost. For the specific definition of the coarse-scale space, we consider Raviart–Thomas finite elements for the mass flux and piecewise-linear continuous finite elements for the pressure. We provide a complete analysis of stability and convergence of the proposed method, in addition to a study on its conservation and consistency properties. We also present a battery of numerical tests to verify the results of the analysis, and evaluate a number of possible variations, such as using piecewise-linear continuous finite elements for the coarse-scale mass fluxes.
The coupling of anisotropic unstructured mesh adaptation techniques with an immersed boundary method (IBM) called penalization is studied for time dependent flow simulations involving moving objects. To extend Residual Distribution (RD) method to the penalized Navier Stokes equations, a new formulation based on a Strang splitting is developed. To reduce the error on solid boundaries, unstructured mesh adaptation based on an elasticity model is used. Keeping a constant connectivity, the mesh evolves in time according to the solid position, and the new formulation is proposed in an ALE framework.
The interest on Immersed Boundary Methods (IBM) is increasing in Computational Fluid Dynamics as they simplify the mesh generation problem. In this work, we consider an approach based on the addition of a penalty term to the Navier–Stokes equations to account for the wall boundary conditions. To discretize the resulting equations we use a residual distribution approach previously developed by some of the authors. To adapt the method to the IBM considered, we developed a new formulation of residual distribution based on a Strang splitting method in time, coupling an implicit asymptotic integration procedure of the penalization ODE with a simplified explicit residual distribution for the Navier–Stokes equations. The first method, provides an operator which is exact up to orders eta^2, with eta the penalty parameter assuming values of the order of 10^−10. A modification of the solution gradient reconstruction necessary for the evaluation of the viscous fluxes, is also introduced in the paper. This guarantees that correct physical values of the viscous stresses are recovered in vicinity of the solid. We show formally and numerically that the approach proposed is second order accurate for smooth solutions. We evaluate its potential for IBM by coupling the resulting method with unstructured mesh adaptation on wall boundaries. Several steady and time dependent tests are used to show the promising features of the method proposed.
The interest on embedded boundary methods is increasing in Computational Fluid Dynamics because they simplify the mesh generation problem when dealing with the Navier-Stokes equations. To give a few examples, they simplify the simulation of multi-physics flows, the coupling of fluid-solid interactions in situation of large motions or deformations. Nevertheless an accurate treatment of the wall boundary conditions remains an issue of the method. In this work, a penalty term added to the Navier-Stokes equations accounts for the wall boundary conditions and accuracy is recovered using mesh adaptation, thanks to the potential of unstructured meshes.